#124: During the Final Tahiyat: Remembered Missed the Bowing (Rukuk)

Question:

Assalamualaikum ustaz. A person remembered that he missed the rukuk (bow) but he is already in the final tahiyat position. What should he do? Hope for an explanation.

Answer:

Alhamdulillah, praise and gratitude to Allah SWT for His countless blessings for us all. Praise and salutations to our beloved Prophet Muhammad PBUH, his family, companions and all those who follow his footsteps until the Last Day.

A valid and complete prayer is when it fulfils all the requisites and conditions. The requisites are the basis of a certain matter. For example, the walls of a room. Hence, there are requisites for parts of prayer. The prayer will be incomplete and invalid prayer except when all of the parts are completed following the parts and order that came from Rasullullah PBUH as revealed to him from Gabriel AS. All the requisites of prayer can be summed up to 13 matters. [1]

The requisites of prayer consist of certain actions or recitations that are obligatory. The requisites are divided into four. They are the qauli, fi’li, qalbi and maknawi requisites. All of this requisite total is 13 of which it is obligatory to be performed perfectly in prayer, where if any is left or missed, the prayer is invalidated. The requisites are briefly explained as follows:

First: Qauliyyah requisite, which are:

  • Takbiratul ihram
  • Al-Fatihah recitation
  • The final tasyahhud recitation
  • Praise and salutation to the Prophet PBUH and his family
  • Give salam

Second: Fi’liyyah requisite, which are:

  • Standing
  • Rukuk (bow)
  • I’tidal (standing briefly after bowing)
  • Sujud (prostration)
  • Sitting between the prostrations
  • Sitting for the final tasyahhud

Third: Ma’nawiyyah requisite is only one that it is that it must be in order

Fourth: Qalbiyah requisite, there is only intention. [2]

Hence, one must never miss any of these requisites for it will invalidate his prayer, regardless of whether because one forgets or it is done intentionally.

In the above issue, if it is just a doubt, then ignore the doubt and complete the prayer for doubt doesn’t affect what is certain. This follows the Islamic legal maxim:

اليَقِين لَا يُزَالُ بِالشَّكّ

“Certainty cannot be abrogated by doubt.” [3]

This maxim means that if a person has ascertained a matter, then his doubts crept in, as to whether what has been ascertained is the same or has changed, then basically the ascertained matter remains the same. Thus, an ascertained matter remains as what has been made certain of it. [4]

However, if he is certain that he intentionally missed it, then he should add another rakaat to complete his prayer. This is based on the maxim:

اليَقِينُ لَا يُزَالُ إِلَّا بِاليَقِين

“Certainty can not be removed except with another certainty.” [5]

Wallahu a’lam.

 

[1] See al-Fiqh al-Manhaji, 1/141

[2] See al-Taqrirat al-Sadidah, pg. 208-209

[3] See al-Asybah wa al-Nazair, pg. 50, 59 dan 263

[4] See Syarah al-Qawa’id al-Fiqhiyyah, pg. 45

[5] See Mausu’ah al-Qawa’id al-Fiqhiyyah, 9/81

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