#453: Drinking Domesticated Donkey’s Milk

Question:

Assalamualaikum ustaz. What is the ruling of drinking the milk of a domesticated donkey? Hope for an explanation. Thank you.

Answer:

Waalaikumussalam wrt. wbt.,

Alhamdulillah, praise and gratitude to Allah SWT for His countless blessings for us all. Praise and salutations to our beloved Prophet Muhammad PBUH, his family, companions, and all those who follow his footsteps until the Final day.

We start with the statement of Allah SWT:

وَإِنَّ لَكُمْ فِي الْأَنْعَامِ لَعِبْرَةً نُسْقِيكُمْ مِمَّا فِي بُطُونِهِ مِنْ بَيْنِ فَرْثٍ وَدَمٍ لَبَنًا خَالِصًا سَائِغًا لِلشَّارِبِينَ

“And indeed, for you in grazing livestock is a lesson. We give you drink from what is in their bellies – between excretion and blood – pure milk, palatable to drinkers.” [1]

Syeikh al-Sa’di stated that indeed, Allah SWT has subjected farm animals for the benefit of all of you, there is a lesson that you can learn from that it shows the perfection of the greatness of Allah and the vastness of His blessings. When He grants you drink from what is in the stomachs of the animals that consist of filth and blood. He removed both of these matters, producing pure milk from anything that can make it murky (not mixed with anything), that is palatable for its drinkers. It can both quench people’s thirst and fill their stomachs. None of these matters (occurs) except by Allah SWT’s greatness and doesn’t happen naturally. Is there anything that can naturally change filth eaten by animals and drinks from freshwater and saltwater into pure milk (free from any other contaminants) that is palatable for its drinkers? [2]

The permissibility of drinking animal milk

There are numerous hadiths which shows Rasullullah PBUH drink milk. Among them is a narration from Abdullah bin Abbas R.Anhuma, he said:

أَهْدَتْ خالَتي إلى النبيِّ صَلّى اللهُ عليه وسلَّمَ ضِبابًا وأَقِطًا ولَبَنًا، فَوُضِعَ الضَّبُّ على مائِدَتِهِ، فلوْ كانَ حَرامًا لَمْ يُوضَعْ، وشَرِبَ اللَّبَنَ، وأَكَلَ الأقِطَ

“My aunt presented (roasted) mastigures, Iqt and milk to the Prophet (ﷺ). The mastigures were put on his dining sheet, and if it was unlawful to eat, it would not have been put there. The Prophet (ﷺ) drank the milk and ate the Iqt only.” [3]

Furthermore, in a narration from Abu Bakar al-Siddiq RA, he gave milk to Rasullullah PBUH and the Prophet PBUH drank it. [4]

Drinking domesticated donkey’s milk

First, we should know that the reason of the prohibition of a domesticated donkey is for its own substance which is considered najis. This is as stated in the narration of Anas bin Malik RA who told the story on the day of Khaibar where Rasullullah asked his companion to make an announcement to the people:

إنَّ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ يَنْهَيَانِكُمْ عَنْ لُحُومِ الْحُمُرِ فَإِنَّهَا رِجْسٌ أَوْ نَجِسٌ

“Allah and His Messenger have prohibited you (from eating) of the flesh of (domestic) asses, for these are loathsome or impure.” [5]

Hence, Ibn Qudamah prohibited the milk of domesticated donkeys except ‘Ata’, Tawus and al-Zuhri. However, the early opinion – that is from the majority of scholars – is stronger, for the ruling of the milk of a certain animal follows the ruling of the meat of the animal. [6]

Likewise, the author of the book al-Fiqh al-Manhaji, Habib Hasan al-Kaff also stated that the milk of an animal that is not halal is to be eaten and others are najis. The reason is the ruling the milk of an animal is the same as its meat and domesticated donkey’s meat is considered najis. Thus, it is prohibited to drink its milk except for humans even when the meat of humans is prohibited to be eaten their milk is pure and clean. [7]

Moreover, the milk of domesticated donkey is categorized as ‘aini najis as cited by Imam al-Nawawi from madhhab Syafi’I and that it is haram to eat ‘aini najis such as carcass, domesticated donkey’s milk, urine and others. [8] He also stated in other places that al-Darimi cited at the end part of the book al-Salam three opinions regarding the ruling of domesticated donkey’s milk and others. The sahih opinion said that it is considered najis and impermissible to sell it. [9]

Conclusion

According to the above discussion and arguments, in our opinion, domesticated donkey’s milk is prohibited to be drunk for it is najis. This is different from wild donkeys where milk is halal because its meat is permissible to be eaten.

Further explanation on the ruling of donkey’s meat can be referred in our previous article titled: #420: Eating Donkey. [10]

May Allah SWT grant us all a clear understanding in religion. Amin.

Wallahu a’lam.

 

[1] Surah al-Nahl: 66

[2] See Tafsir al-Sa‘di, pg. 443.

[3] Narrated by al-Bukhari (5402)

[4] Narrated by al-Bukhari (2439)

[5] Narrated by al-Bukhari (4198) dan Muslim (1940)

[6] See al-Mughni, 9/408.

[7] See al-Fiqh al-Manhaji, Pub. Dar al-Qalam, 1/40; 1/503 dan al-Taqrirat al-Sadidah, pg. 128.

[8] See al-Majmu‘ Syarh al-Muhazzab, 9/36.

[9] See al-Majmu‘ Syarh al-Muhazzab, 2/569.

[10] See https://maktabahalbakri.com/420-eating-donkey/

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