#243: Trade During Friday Prayer

Question:

Assalamualaikum ustaz. Is it true that any trade performed during the Friday prayer is prohibited? Even if the one manning the store is a woman, what’s your opinion on this matter?

Answer:

Waalaikumussalam wrt. wbt.,

Alhamdulillah, praise and gratitude to Allah SWT for His countless blessings for us all. Praise and salutations to our beloved Prophet Muhammad PBUH, his family, companions, and all those who follow his footsteps until the Final day.

We start with the statement of Allah SWT:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا نُودِيَ لِلصَّلَاةِ مِن يَوْمِ الْجُمُعَةِ فَاسْعَوْا إِلَىٰ ذِكْرِ اللَّـهِ وَذَرُوا الْبَيْعَ ۚ ذَٰلِكُمْ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ

“O you who have believed, when [the adhan] is called for the prayer on the day of Jumu’ah [Friday], then proceed to the remembrance of Allah and leave trade. That is better for you if you only knew.” [1]

Imam Ibn Kathir when explaining the statement of Allah SWT “إِذَا نُودِيَ لِلصَّلَاةِ” (when [the adhan] is called for the prayer on the day of Jumu’ah [Friday]), he said: “What is meant with al-nida’ (adhan) is the second adhan, which is implemented during the time of Rasullullah PBUH, which is when the Prophet PBUH went out and sit at the pulpit. At the time, the adhan is called out in front of him. Hence, this is the adhan meant here. As for the first adhan, it was later added by Amir al-Mukminin Uthman ibn Affan RA because the number of Muslims has greatly increased.” [2]

Next, in the statement of Allah SWT: “وَذَرُوا الْبَيْعَ” (and leave trade), Ibn Kathir explained: “It means one should hurry towards the remembrance of Allah and leave trade when the call of prayer is heard. Thus, scholars agreed that trade is prohibited after the second adhan. Then, they differed regarding the validity of trade performed during the adhan itself. Regarding this last matter, there are two opinions. And the apparent meaning from the verse is that it is invalid and this is emphasized in its own discussion. Wallahu a’lam.” [3]

Furthermore, this is also in line with a hadith narrated by Said bin Yazid RA:

كَانَ النِّدَاءُ يَوْمَ الْجُمُعَةِ أَوَّلُهُ إِذَا جَلَسَ الْإِمَامُ عَلَى الْمِنْبَرِ عَلَى عَهْدِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَأَبِي بَكْرٍ وَعُمَرَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا ، فَلَمَّا كَانَ عُثْمَانُ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ وَكَثُرَ النَّاسُ زَادَ النِّدَاءَ الثَّالِثَ عَلَى الزَّوْرَاءِ . قَالَ أَبُو عَبْد اللَّهِ الزَّوْرَاءُ مَوْضِعٌ بِالسُّوقِ بِالْمَدِينَةِ

“In the lifetime of the Prophet, Abu Bakr and `Umar, the Adhan for the Jumua prayer used to be pronounced when the Imam sat on the pulpit. But during the Caliphate of `Uthman when the Muslims increased in number, a third Adhan at Az-Zaura’ was added. Abu `Abdullah said, “Az-Zaura’ is a place in the market of Medina.” [4]

In this matter, scholars have agreed that trade is prohibited after the second adhan and when the imam is already at the pulpit delivering the sermon. Imam al-Tahawi stated that the adhan considered (in this matter) is when the imam is at the pulpit. Hence, this is how it originally was during the Friday in the time of the Prophet PBUH. [5]

Coming back to the above question, for a person who is obligated to perform the Friday prayer and continue his business and trade until the sun has passes its zenith and the adhan has been called by the muezzin, then the trade performed is prohibited. The evidence for this is the statement of Allah SWT:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا نُودِيَ لِلصَّلَاةِ مِن يَوْمِ الْجُمُعَةِ فَاسْعَوْا إِلَىٰ ذِكْرِ اللَّـهِ وَذَرُوا الْبَيْعَ ۚ ذَٰلِكُمْ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ

“O you who have believed, when [the adhan] is called for the prayer on the day of Jumu’ah [Friday], then proceed to the remembrance of Allah and leave trade. That is better for you if you only knew.” [6]

In this verse, Allah SWT states the commandment on every mukallaf Muslim man to immediately go to the mosque to perform the Friday prayer and the prohibition against any trade transactions to be performed during this time.

Imam al-Qurtubi in his commentary cited that Allah SWT prohibited trade during this time for those who are obligated to perform the Friday prayer. Although, in the verse, only the phrase ‘البيع’ is used, however, it includes everything, for trade couldn’t happen without purchase (الشراء), hence one of it is mentioned. [7]

Imam al-Qurtubi further added: Whoever isn’t obligated to perform the Friday prayer, then he isn’t prevented from performing trade. [8] Those who aren’t obligated are mentioned in a hadith of Rasullullah PBUH:

الْجُمُعَةُ حَقٌّ وَاجِبٌ عَلَى كُلِّ مُسْلِمٍ فِى جَمَاعَةٍ إِلاَّ أَرْبَعَةً عَبْدٌ مَمْلُوكٌ أَوِ امْرَأَةٌ أَوْ صَبِىٌّ أَوْ مَرِيضٌ

“The Friday prayer in congregation is a necessary duty for every Muslim, with four exceptions: a slave, a woman, a boy, or an invalid.” [9]

Hence, it is clear here that the prohibition for trade is only for Muslim men individuals who are obligated to perform the Friday prayer. However, if the individual isn’t included amongst those who are obligated to perform the Friday prayer, Imam al-Nawawi said: “If two men who aren’t obligated to perform the Friday prayer perform trade transaction between them, then it isn’t prohibited during Friday nor is it makruh.” [10]

Thus, if a person isn’t obligated to perform Friday prayer such as women and travellers who perform trade during the time of Friday prayer, then the trade isn’t prohibited. However, if a woman sells something to a man who is obligated to perform the Friday prayer, then it is prohibited, for it distracts him from his obligation. As for the validity of the transaction, it is valid although it is sinful. [11]

This means that although the profit or income is halal due to the validity of the akad, there is no blessing in it. We should avoid such business, for a life without the blessings of Allah SWT is hard both in this world and the hereafter.

Wallahu a’lam.

 

[1] Surah al-Jumu’ah: 9

[2] See Tafsir al-Quran al-‘Azim, 4/316

[3] See Tafsir al-Quran al-‘Azim, 4/316

[4] Narrated by al-Bukhari (912)

[5] See Mukhtasar al-Tahawi, pg 24

[6] Surah al-Jumuah: 9

[7] See al-Jami’ li Ahkam al-Quran, 18/107

[8] See al-Jami’ li Ahkam al-Quran, 18/107

[9] Narrated by Abu Daud (1067)

[10] See al-Majmu’ Syarh al-Muhazzab, 4/500

[11] See al-Mu’tamad by Syeikh Muhammad al-Zuhaili, 1/500-501

 

Kami amat mengalu-alukan sumbangan anda untuk penyelenggaraan operasi Maktabah Al-Bakri.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *