#108: Qauli Requisites (Rukun) in Prayer

Question:

Assalamualaikum ustaz. I’m currently studying in Australia. When performing the congregational prayer, I’ve never heard of the recitation of other Arabs. I was also rebuked for my al-Fatihah recitation even when I was reciting in a low voice just so that only I hear it for I was considered distracting. Hope for your opinion.

Answer:

Alhamdulillah, praise and gratitude to Allah SWT for His countless blessings for us all. Praise and salutations to our beloved Prophet Muhammad PBUH, his family, companions and all those who follow his footsteps until the Last Day.

Among the main requisites in prayer is qauli requisites. It is named as qauli requisites because these requisites are obligatory to be recited or verbalized that they are heard at least to the reciter himself. There are five qauli requisites:

  • Takbiratul ihram
  • Recitation of al-Fatihah
  • Recitation of the final tasyahhud
  • Praise and salutations for the Prophet Muhammad in the final tasyahhud
  • Salam

All of the qauli requisites must be recited, verbalized and enunciated in a voice loud enough to be heard himself. Syeikh Sulaiman al-Bujairimi stated in his hasyiah that the recitation of the takbir should be heard by oneself as well as other qauli recitations. [1]

Imam al-Nawawi said that the minimum recitation for qauli requisites is in a low voice that can be heard by oneself if he can hear. [2]

He further stated in al-Majmu’: “For a makmum it is sunnah to lower his voice whether he is praying alone or in congregation. And the minimum of his voice is he can hear it with his own ears if he has sound hearing and nothing is preventing him from reciting it. This includes the recitation of al-Fatihah, surah, tasbih, tasyahhud, salam, supplications and others. Regardless of whether the recitation is obligatory or sunnah. All of them isn’t considered until he can hear it himself.” [3]

In the book I’anatu al-Talibin, it is also explained: (And it is obligatory to hear) the Takbiratul ihram by the person praying himself, if he has sound hearing and nothing is preventing him such as other loud noises around him (the same for all the qauli requisites) from al-Fatihah, the final tasyahhud and salam. [4]

Furthermore, in madhhab al-Syafie, it is makruh to increase one’s voice until it is heard by the person beside him distracting the person. This is in line with the statement of Rasullullah PBUH:

لَا ضَرَرَ وَلَا ضِرَار

“There is no injury nor return of injury.” [5]

Let us all learn our religion in-depth especially the chapter of Fiqh al-Solah and others so that we can follow the shariah correctly.

Wallahu a’lam.

 

[1] See Hasyiah al-Bujairimi ‘ala Syarh Minhaj Al-Tullab, 1/189

[2] See Raudhah al-Talibin wa Umdah al-Muftin, 1/242

[3] See al-Majmu’ Syarh al-Muhazzab, 3/394

[4] See I`anatu al-Talibin, 3/295

[5] Narrated by Ibn Majah (2341), Ahmad (22778) and al-Daraqutni (4/228) and others with continuous sanad, Imam Malik (2/746) in Muwattho’ through mursal from Amr bin Yahya from his father from Rasulullah SAW, he didn’t state Abu Sa’id. However, it has other routes of which some strengthen the others. Hasan hadith.

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