Assalamualaikum ustaz. What is the ruling for a marriage between a human and a jinn? Is such marriage permissible? Hope for an explanation.
Waalaikumussalam wrt. wbt.,
Alhamdulillah, praise and gratitude to Allah SWT for His countless blessings for us all. Praise and salutations to our beloved Prophet Muhammad PBUH, his family, companions, and all those who follow his footsteps until the Final day.
The definition of jinn and its existence
Basically, we have to acknowledge the existence of jinn in this world. Hence, we have to also acknowledge that it is made of matter and that it can change form into several forms.
In al-Mausu’ah al-Fiqhiyyah, al-Jin is different from al-Insan. The words “وَأَجَنَّهُ” means “when something is covered.” And for everything that is covered from you, then indeed. (جُنَّ) is covered from you (cannot be seen).
Ibn Manzur said it is named al-Jin because it is covered and prevented from the view or sight. It is similar to al-Janin which is covered (from being seen) and it is inside the womb of his mother. 
Although we cannot see them with our naked eyes, it doesn’t mean that the shaytan and jinn don’t exist. Their existence cannot be seen by us. This is stated by Allah SWT in al-Quran. Allah SWT states:
إِنَّهُۥ يَرَىٰكُمْ هُوَ وَقَبِيلُهُۥ مِنْ حَيْثُ لَا تَرَوْنَهُمْ
“Indeed, he sees you, he and his tribe, from where you do not see them.” 
Syeikh Tahir Ibn ‘Asyur said that some scholars used this verse as evidence saying that it is impossible to see the shaytan. However, the verse doesn’t mean this. It means that they can see us while we cannot see them. Even when we can’t see them, it doesn’t mean we can’t see them forever. Not being able to see them now, doesn’t deny their existence in absolution. 
Hence, we can say that people who deny the existence of jinn and shaytan in truth are actually denying a matter that has reached the level of mutawatir and if they are rejected or denied, there is concern that he may fall into disbelief for denying something that is mutawatir.
Syeikh Muhammad al-Syibli cited the opinion of Imam al-Haramain al-Juwaini. He said: “Know that most philosophers, Qadariah people and most zindiq people deny the existence of jinn and shaytan. Their denial is due to the fact that they didn’t reflect and learn the shariah in-dept. When there are actually mutawatir evidences and famous athars.” 
Abu al-Qasim al-Ansari, a student of Imam al-Haramain stated that the conclusion of the existence of jinn and shaytan isn’t impossible logically. Quranic and hadith evidences have preceded in acknowledging their existence. Hence, those who believe and hold unto religion must know that it is among permissible matters logically and it has been proven through syarak evidences.
The jin bears the same responsibilities as humans do
Ibn ‘Abd al-Bar stated: The jinn according to the scholars is a group of mukallaf that are included in khitab (syarak). This follows the statement of Allah SWT:
فَبِأَي آلَاء رَبكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ
“So, which of the favors of your Lord would you deny?” 
Imam al-Razi in his commentary on the above verse said: All scholars have agreed that all jinn are mukallaf.
While al-Qadhi Abu al-Hasan ‘Abd al-Jabbar said: We didn’t know of any khilaf among the nazhar (rationalists) regarding this matter (that the jinn is included in the mukallaf group). And al-Quran stated this matter in various verses.
Likewise, in another surah, the faith of the jinn towards Allah SWT is narrated when the verses of the Quran were recited to them. This proves that the jinn also believes in Allah SWT just like humans do. Allah SWT states:
قُلْ أُوحِيَ إِلَيَّ أَنَّهُ اسْتَمَعَ نَفَرٌ مِّنَ الْجِنِّ فَقَالُوا إِنَّا سَمِعْنَا قُرْآنًا عَجَبًا ﴿١﴾ يَهْدِي إِلَى الرُّشْدِ فَآمَنَّا بِهِ ۖ وَلَن نُّشْرِكَ بِرَبِّنَا أَحَدًاؤ
“Say, [O Muhammad], “It has been revealed to me that a group of the jinn listened and said, ‘Indeed, we have heard an amazing Qur’an. It guides to the right course, and we have believed in it. And we will never associate with our Lord anyone.” 
Syeikh Dr Wahbah Zuhaili in his commentary of the above verse explained that the jinn also bears the responsibility to follow the shariah of Islam just like humans do. Likewise, among them are believers and those who call on the disbelieving jinn to believe in Allah SWT and the Prophet Muhammad PBUH who was sent to all creations including humans, jinn and angels. 
Imam al-Qadhi Badr al-Din al-Syibli said: These are among the verses which show their (the jinn) responsibility and they are also included in the commandment and prohibition verse. 
In another verse, Allah SWT states:
وَمَا خَلَقْتُ الْجِنَّ وَالْإِنسَ إِلَّا لِيَعْبُدُونِ
“And I did not create the jinn and mankind except to worship Me.” 
Thus, the above verse shows that the jinn and humans are included in the commandment to worship Allah SWT. This is as stated by Saidina Ali bin Abi Thalib RA in explaining the meaning of the above verse saying: “And I did not create the jinn and mankind except to worship Me.” 
In the book A’lam al-Jin wa al-Syaitan, the above verse explains that the jinn also bears the responsibility to obey the commandments and leave the prohibitions of Allah SWT. If they are obedient then Allah will bless them and they are rewarded with paradise. And if they transgress and sin towards Allah SWT, then they’ll be punished with hellfire. 
Hence, the above discussion acknowledges that the jinn is included to bear the responsibility to believe and obey the commandments of Allah SWT just like humans do.
The group of jinn who believe and disbelieve
In this matter, Allah SWT explains that there is a group of jinn who believe in Him and there are also those who disbelieve in Him. Allah SWT states:
وَأَنَّا مِنَّا الْمُسْلِمُونَ وَمِنَّا الْقَاسِطُونَ ۖ فَمَنْ أَسْلَمَ فَأُولَـٰئِكَ تَحَرَّوْا رَشَدًا
“And among us are Muslims [in submission to Allah], and among us are the unjust. And whoever has become Muslim – those have sought out the right course.” 
Syeikh Dr Wahbah al-Zuhaili in his commentary stated, that the above verse mentions that some of the jinns are believers, obedient and worship Allah SWT and others oppress and deviate from the road of the truth and good… (الْقَاسِطُونَ) means disbelieving jinn, they are those who deviated from the true guidance. And they are the ones who will be thrown into Allah SWT’s hell. 
Likewise, it is the same in regards to rewards and punishments from Allah SWT towards the believing and disbelieving jinn. This is depicted in the Quran where they’ll be rewarded or punished in the hereafter. Hence, Allah SWT has given them nothing different compared to mankind. Allah SWT states:
فِيهِنَّ قَاصِرَاتُ الطَّرْفِ لَمْ يَطْمِثْهُنَّ إِنسٌ قَبْلَهُمْ وَلَا جَانٌّ
“In them are women limiting [their] glances, untouched before them by man or jinni,” 
Ibn Kathir said that the above verse is evidence that the believing jinn will be rewarded with paradise. Cited from the narration of Artah bin al-Manzur, he said: Dhamrah bin Habib was asked, will the jinn also enter paradise? He answered: “Yes and they get married too.” 
Marriage between humans and jinn
Regarding the issue of marriage between jinn and human, briefly, there are three opinions of scholars:
- This is the opinion of Imam Ahmad, Imam al-Zuhri, al-Hakam, Qatadah, Hasan al-Basri, Hajjaj ibn Artat, Abu Hammad and Imam al-Ghazali
- This is the opinion of Syafie scholars. This is also the opinion of some salaf such as al-Tha’labi, al-A’masy, Uthman ibn Sa’id al-Dari. Syeikh Abu Hamid al-‘Imad bin Yunus said: “Yes, it is permissible for humans to marry the jinn.”
Imam al-Munawi said: “In al-Fatawa al-Sirajiyyah by Hanafi scholars, marriage between jinn and human is impermissible for they are of different types. Likewise, in Fatawa al-Barizi among Syafiyyah scholars, both of them are impermissible to marry each other.” 
The same is stated in the opinion of Syafi’e scholars who prohibit it such as al-Khatib al-Syarbini. He said: “The prohibitions of the marriage are two; the that is eternal or forever. Among the forms of marriage that are prohibited eternally is a marriage of different types. For example, marriage between a man from human and female jinn (and vice versa) is impermissible.” 
Syeikh Yusuf bin Ahmad al-Sijistani from Al-Hanafiyyah scholars stated: “Marriage between man and jinn is impermissible.” 
Syeikh Syarafuddin al-Barizi said: It is impermissible for a man to marry a female jinn. This is based on the mafhum from the following two statements of Allah SWT:
وَاللَّهُ جَعَلَ لَكُم مِّنْ أَنفُسِكُمْ أَزْوَاجًا
“And Allah has made for you from yourselves mates,” 
The same is stated by Allah SWT:
وَمِنْ آيَاتِهِ أَنْ خَلَقَ لَكُم مِّنْ أَنفُسِكُمْ أَزْوَاجًا لِّتَسْكُنُوا إِلَيْهَا
“And of His signs is that He created for you from yourselves mates that you may find tranquillity in them.” 
Commentary scholars in their explanation of both the above verses stated: (Allah SWT created you mates) from yourselves following the process of your creation.
The same is said by Syeikh Jamaluddin al-Isnawi who also stated that it is impermissible for a man to marry a female jinn according to the general interpretation of the above two holy verses. Thus, commentary scholars when interpreting the two verses said they mean: (Your mates) is from your type and the same creation as you are. 
This is as stated in the statement of Allah SWT:
لَقَدْ جَاءَكُمْ رَسُولٌ مِّنْ أَنفُسِكُمْ
“There has certainly come to you a Messenger from among yourselves.” 
It means: “From among the son of Adam.”
Hence, scholars prohibit marriage with jinn presenting a dhaif hadith which states:
نهى النَّبِي صلى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسلم عَن نِكَاح الْجِنّ
“The Prophet PBUH prohibited marriage with jinn.” 
There are also other arguments that state that marriage is sanctioned to cultivate love, calmness (between husband and wife) and mahabbah. And such characteristics aren’t owned by the jinn.
Moreover, there isn’t any syarak permission for humans to marry jinn. Allah SWT states:
فَانكِحُوا مَا طَابَ لَكُم مِّنَ النِّسَاءِ
“Then marry those that please you of [other] women,”
The word women mean: The noun is specific to the women of the children of Adam. Hence, the prohibition for others (other than the women from the children of Adam) remains. The reason is an Islamic legal maxim states: “The original ruling for private parts is prohibited until any evidence comes that permits it.”
Likewise, scholars state that marriage between a free man and a slave woman is prohibited even when they are of the same type. Hence, surely, marriage between humans and jin is prioritized to be prohibited.
Here, we state that in accordance with the above-presented evidences and arguments, the ruling for the marriage between humans and jinn is prohibited. This is in line with the syarak maqasid from the sanctioning of marriage between people; a man and woman that is to cultivate love, Sakinah, mawaddah and increase and spread the lineage of mankind from among men and women. Especially, when syarak emphasizes the condition of kafa’ah or compatibility for a couple in a marriage.
In our opinion, marriage between jinn and humans is impermissible, for they are of different types and characteristics. Jinn is unseen matter while humans are seen matter. This is based on the statement of Allah SWT:
وَاللَّهُ جَعَلَ لَكُمْ مِنْ أَنْفُسِكُمْ أَزْوَاجًا
“And Allah has made for you from yourselves mates,” 
The meaning of this statement shows us that humans are granted by Allah wives and husbands of their own type and this is the major difference between humans and jinn. This is further explained in His statement:
وَمِنْ آيَاتِهِ أَنْ خَلَقَ لَكُمْ مِنْ أَنْفُسِكُمْ أَزْوَاجًا لِتَسْكُنُوا إِلَيْهَا وَجَعَلَ بَيْنَكُمْ مَوَدَّةً وَرَحْمَةً
“And of His signs is that He created for you from yourselves mates that you may find tranquillity in them; and He placed between you affection and mercy.” 
Syeikh al-Syanqiti said: “This verse shows that Allah did not create humans for their mates except for the type and self of their own.” 
Several of the issues that will arise if marriage between human and jinn is made permissible are:
- Adultery will increase and then the pregnancy will be claimed to be from the jinn realm.
- The purpose of marriage is to attain children and family life. To whom will the child be associated and how are they created?
- Interaction with jinn isn’t free from harm whereas Islam emphasizes maintaining and preserving a person’s safety.
- It opens doors to more unresolvable issues and never-ending questions.
We end with the opinion of Syeikh al-Azhar Syeikh Jad al-Haq Ali Jad al-Haq, who among others said: This marriage should first be made certain and confirmed. This issue is very far from the waqi’ and reality. The reason is the issue of qadha’ (rulings and legislation) is decided according to the evidences presented by paperwork and iqrar (acknowledgement) accepted by syarak. 
May with this explanation we are able to understand this religion better. Ameen.
 See al-Mausu’ah al-Fiqhiyyah al-Kuwaitiyyah, 16/89
 Surah al-‘Araf : 27
 See Tahrir Ma’na Al-Sadid Wa Tanwir Al-‘Aql Al-Jadid Fi Tafsir Al-Quran Al-Majid, 3/26
 See Aakam al-Marjan Fi Gharaib Al-Akhbar wa Ahkam Al-Jann, pg 6
 See Aakam Al-Marjan Fi Ghraib AL-Akhbar wa Ahkam Al-Jann, pg 6-7
 Surah al-Rahman (47)
 Surah al-Jin: 1-2
 See Tafsir al-Munir 29/163
 See Akaam al-Marjan fi Ahkam al-Jaan by Badr al-Din al-Syibli, pg. 63
 Surah al-Zariyat: 56
 See al-Jami’ li Ahkam al-Quran, 17/52
 See A’lam al-Jin wa al-Syaitan, 1/41
 Surah al-Jin: 14
 See Tafsir al-Munir, 29/170
 Surah al-Rahman: 56
 See Tafsir al-Quran al-‘Azim, 7/465
 See Faidh al-Qadir, 1/186
 See Mughni al-Muhtaj, 3/232
 See Munyah al-Mufti ‘an al-Fatawa al-Sirajiyyah
 Surah al-Nahl (72)
 Surah al-Rum (21)
 See Akaam al-Marjan fi Ahkam al-Jaan, pg. 114
 Surah al-Taubah (128)
 Narrated by Harb al-Karmani through mursal.
 Surah al-Nisa’: 3
 Surah al-Nahl: 72
 Surah al-Rum: 21
 See Adhwa’ al-Bayan, 3/43
 See Buhuth wa Fatawa Islamiyyah fi Qadhaya Mu’asirah, 2/146