Assalamualaikum, I’m a student in a tahfiz which emphasized its students to always strive in the memorization of the Quran and repeating the memorized verses. My question is whether or not it is permissible for a menstruating student to recite al-Quran?
Alhamdulillah, praise and gratitude to Allah SWT for His countless blessings for us all. Praise and salutations to our beloved Prophet Muhammad PBUH, his family, companions and all those who follow his footsteps until the Last Day.
In the issue of a woman reciting al-Quran during menstruation, there are two opinions:
- This is the opinion of most Fuqaha. They prohibited women from reciting al-Quran during menstruation and major hadith according to the hadith from Ibn Umar R.Anhuma, where the Prophet PBUH said:
لاَ تَقْرَأُ الحَــائِضُ وَلاَ الجُــنُبُ شَــْـيئاً مِنَ القُرأَنِ
“The woman who is menstruating and the one who is sexually impure (junub) must not recite any of the Qur’an.” 
- This is the opinion of Malikiah scholars based on a sahih narration which states: It is permissible to hold al-Quran for menstruating women and it is also permissible to recite it with the purpose of teaching and learning. This facilitation is only for menstruating women and not women in a state of janabah. The reason is the days for menstruation is long. Thus, if they are prohibited from reciting al-Quran, they may forget it. Whilst, dhikr to Allah SWT is permissible for menstruating women. It will also ease Madrasah Tahfiz al-Quran to continue with their teaching as to not let their huffaz stop and forget what they have memorized because they are menstruating or in nifas (bleeding due to childbirth).
This is also the opinion of previous scholars such as Imam Bukhari, al-Tabari, Ibn Munzir, Daud, al-Sya’bi, al-Syafie’s opinion in his Qadim qaul and most recent scholars. Among them is Syeikh Uthaimin and others.
Moreover, it is also permissible for women in the state of nifas to recite al-Quran as stated in the book Majmu’ al-Fatawa: “Reciting al-Quran for women in nifas is permissible if she fears that she’ll forget her memorization because the duration of nifas is very long. However, if she is certain that she’ll not forget it, then it isn’t necessary for her to recite it.” 
Among the opinion presented by the Johor State Fatwa Committee which convened on 14th Syawal 1437 or 19th July 2016, it has been decided that: 
“The ruling for menstruating women to recite al-Quran according to the final qaul of madhhab Syefie is it is prohibited as stated in a hadith narrated by Imam al-Tirmizi. However, the custom of people now in learning al-Quran is different if compared with previous times, where one of its developments is that it has been a field recognized at the national and international level.
Thus, the opinion of contemporary scholars such as former Syeikh al-Azhar, Syeikh Jadul Hak Ali Jadul Hak and others, ruled it permissible for menstruating women to memorize and recite al-Quran on the factor of examinations or tests is more appropriate to be made the ruling based on the maxim of darurah or masyaqqah and also maslahah for the time of an examination is finite and limited. The permissibility in this issue is supported by the Qadim qaul of Imam Syafie who said: “It is permissible for menstruating women to recite al-Quran.”
Syeikh al-Dasuqi al-Maliki said: “It isn’t restricted with the reason of menstruation to recite al-Quran when there is blood even when janabah happens beforehand.” 
Syeikh Salih Abd al-Sami’ al-Abi said: “It isn’t prohibited to recite Quran without touching the Quran.” 
Al-Mardawi al-Hanbali said “Menstruating women are absolutely prohibited from reciting al-Quran and this is sahih in madhhab Hanbali but there is an opinion which states that it isn’t prohibited. This is chosen by Syeikh Taqiyuddin Ibn Taimiyyah.” 
Ibn Hajar cited from Ibn Rusyd and Ibn Battal that Imam al-Bukhari ruled it permissible for menstruating and women in janabah while it is invalid according to musannif regarding the hadith. 
To conclude, reciting al-Quran for women who are menstruating is PERMISSIBLE according to the reasons explained. We would like to emphasize a great opinion presented by former Syeikh al-Azhar Jada al-Haq Ali Jada al-Haq through his book Buhuthun wa al-Fatawa. Among others, he stated the permissibility of menstruating students who are memorizing the Quran to recite it for exams or tests. The reason is that time is finite and limited. Thus, the concept of darurah or masyaqqah is well-suited to be applied.
It is recorded that Saidatina Aishah recite al-Quran when she was menstruating. This is cited by Imam al-Nawai in al-Majmuk , al-Tabarani in Mu’jam al-Awsat , Ibn Rajab in Fath al-Bari , Ibn Hazm in al-Muhalla. 
This is also the opinion of Ibn Abbas, Ibn Musayyib who mentioned the permissibility of reciting al-Quran for menstruating women including Muhammad ibn Maslamah.
There is an opinion that states the ruling for menstruating women is the same as women in nifas where they can recite and touch al-Quran if they are a teacher or student. 
 Narrated by al-Tirmizi (131) and Ibn Majah (596). Syeikh Syuaib al-Arnout in Takhrij al-Awasim wa al-Qawasim (4/32) stated that in the sanad of this hadith there is Ismail bin Ayyash who narrated from other outside his state and there are two routes of this hadith but both are dhaif.